An innovative methodological approach based on XRF measurements using a polychromatic X-ray beam combined with simulation tests based on an ultra-fast custom-made Monte Carlo code has been used to characterize the bulk chemical composition of restored (i.e., cleaned) and unrestored multilayered Peruvian metallic artifacts belonging to the twelfth- and thirteenth-century AD funerary complex of Chornancap–Chotuna in northern Peru. The multilayered structure was represented by a metal substrate covered by surface corrosion patinas and/or a layer from past protective treatments. The aim of the study was to assess whether this new approach could be used to overcome some of the limitations highlighted in previous research performed using monochromatic X-ray beam on patina-free and protective treatment-free metal artifacts in obtaining reliable data both on the composition on the bulk metals and on surface layers thickness. Results from the analytical campaign have led to a reformulation of previous hypotheses about the structure and composition of the metal used to create the Peruvian artifacts under investigation.
|Journal||Applied Physics A: Materials Science and Processing|
|State||Published - 1 Jun 2016|