The recurrent hemoptysis in patients with bleeding bronchiectasis are a risk factor of death; but also there is high ignorance for the medical community about the existence of other opportunistic agents, and not only tuberculosis, that can produce them. Objectives. To describe the histopathological and microbiological characteristics of a series of bleeding patients with bronchiectasis that were negative for tuberculosis, HIV and cancer in preliminary studies. Material and methods. We developed a pathological and microbiological evaluation in search of fungi, tuberculosis, lung neoplasia and common germs; in 24 surgical patients with hemoptysis of bleeding bronchiectasis with a history of pulmonary tuberculosis or contact with people that suffering this disease. Results. The fungus Aspergillus was found in 20 of the 24 patients studied. No positive results were reported on tests carried out for common aerobic bacteria and tuberculosis. The pathologic examination confirmed the presence of Aspergillus and mycetoma. The cicatricial tissue, that was invaded, is highly vascularized with a predisposition to bleeding and prolonged surgery time. Conclusions. Aspergillus fungus is the single biggest infectious agent present in patients with bleeding bronchiectasis in this series.