A second Mesozoic twisted-wing parasite (Strepsiptera) is described and figured based on an exceptionally well-preserved male in mid-Cretaceous (Cenomanian) amber from northern Myanmar. Phthanoxenos nervosus Engel and Huang, gen. et sp. nov., is distinguished from other strepsipteran lineages, particularly the contemporaneous Cretostylops engeli Grimaldi and Kathirithamby, also in Burmese amber, and Protoxenos janzeni Pohl et al. in mid-Eocene Baltic amber, and assigned to a new family, Phthanoxenidae Engel and Huang, fam. nov. Phthanoxenos exhibit features indicative of a more primitive phylogenetic position than Cretostylopidae but still more derived than Protoxenidae. Brief remarks are made on the geological history of the Strepsiptera.
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We are thankful to two anonymous reviewers for positive feedback on an earlier version of the manuscript. D.-Y.H. and C.-Y.C. were supported by the National Basic Research Program of China ( 2012CB821903 ), Outstanding Youth Foundation of Jiangsu Province ( BK 2012049 ), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China ( 91114201 ), while L.C.V.B. was partially supported by U.S. National Science Foundation grant DEB-1144162 (to M.S.E.) and M.A. by a fellowship from the Fondo para la Innovación, Ciencia y Tecnología , Peru. This is a contribution of the Division of Entomology, University of Kansas Natural History Museum; to the team project, “Biodiversity: Origin, Structure, Evolution and Geology” granted to D.A. by the Lebanese University ; and to the project (CGL2014-52163-C2-1-P) “Iberian amber: an exceptional record of Cretaceous forests at the rise of modern terrestrial ecosystems”.
- Burmese amber