A phylogenetic reassessment of Hyalenna Forbes and Dircenna Doubleday, with a revision of Hyalenna (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Ithomiinae)

Keith R. Willmott, Gerardo Lamas

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Abstract

A morphological study of adults and immature stages and a cladistic analysis were conducted to clarify the relationships amongst members of the sister nymphalid butterfly genera Dircenna Doubleday and Hyalenna Forbes. Two species formerly included in Dircenna, Ithomia paradoxa Staudinger and Dircenna hugia Schaus, clustered with Ithomia perasippa, the type species of Hyalenna. Therefore, the first two species are transferred from Dircenna to Hyalenna (comb.n.). Hyalenna and Dircenna as now conceived are both monophyletic and well supported by morphological apomorphies and branch support measures. The taxonomy and classification of Hyalenna are reviewed and seven species and twenty-four taxa are recognized, including one new species, Hyalenna buckleyisp.n., and eleven new subspecies: Hyalenna paradoxa incachacassp.n., H. perasippa valenciassp.n., H. perasippa ortygiosassp.n., H. perasippa solitariassp.n., H. buckleyi pomacochassp.n., H. alidella exsulansssp.n., H. alidella cinereolassp.n., H. alidella vescassp.n., H. sulmona balsamicassp.n., H. sulmona hyalinassp.n. and H. sulmona tersassp.n. A key for the identification of all taxa, and illustrations of male and female genitalia for all species and adult specimens of all taxa (where known), are presented. The natural history of each species is summarized and the immature stages of H. paradoxa and H. sulmona are described for the first time.
Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)419-468
Number of pages50
JournalSystematic Entomology
Volume31
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Jul 2006

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