An integrative approach elucidates the systematics of Sea Hayward and Cybdelis Boisduval (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Biblidinae)

Fernando M.S. Dias, Ricardo R. Siewert, André V.L. Freitas, Gerardo Lamas, Luiza M. Magaldi, Olaf H.H. Mielke, Mirna M. Casagrande

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

The systematics of the enigmatic and rather uncommon species of Sea Hayward and Cybdelis Boisduval is assessed through morphological and molecular analyses. The aim of this paper is three-fold: (i) to ascertain the phylogenetic position of Sea and Cybdelis in Biblidinae; (ii) to determine the evolutionary relationships among species of Sea and Cybdelis; and (iii) to review the taxonomy of Sea and Cybdelis. The result of the molecular analysis recovers Sea sister to Cybdelis, and this clade sister to Eubagina (sensu Lamas,), rendering Epicaliina (sensu Lamas,) paraphyletic. A new tribe, Cybdelini trib.n. is erected to include Sea and Cybdelis; the other genera formerly included in Epicaliina (sensu Lamas,), Eunica Hübner and Sevenia Koçak are assigned to Eunicini trib.rest., and the remaining genera of Biblidinae to other previously recognized tribes, similar to those implicitly proposed by Wahlberg et al. (). The morphological analysis recovers similar results and the following relationships among species of Cybdelis: C. phaesyla (Hübner) (C. boliviana Salvin (C. mnasylus Doubleday (C. petronita Burmeister stat.rest. + C. thrasylla C. Felder & R. Felder stat.rest.))). Sea and Cybdelis are recognized as distinct genera; a new subspecies, S. sophronia jenkinsi Dias, Siewert & Freitas ssp.n., distributed from Venezuela to Bolivia along the Andes eastern foothills, is described; and C. petronita and C. thrasylla are accepted as valid species. Lectotypes for C. boliviana, C. peruviana Staudinger, C. mnasylus, C. thrasylla, C. petronita and C. mnasylus var. meridionalis Hall and a neotype for Vanessa sophronia Godart are designated. Additionally, dichotomous keys and distribution maps to all taxa are provided; male genitalia and hypandria are illustrated for all species; generic characters of the head, labial palpi and legs are illustrated; immature stages of some species also are figured. The published work has been registered on ZooBank: http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:D8EBB649-5E9D-4218-B1F1-7A69DA775FD0.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)226-250
Number of pages25
JournalSystematic Entomology
Volume44
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2019
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors would like to thank: Carlos G. C. Mielke (CM), Ezequiel Núñez-Bustos and Pablo Lavinia-O. (ENB, MACN), Brian Harris and Robert Robbins (USNM), Renato Silva and Marcelo Duarte (MZUSP), Alfred Moser (CLAM), Eduardo J. Ely e Silva (MECB), Maria H. S. Vaz (MUCPel), Diego Carreo (CBUP-I), Jean F. Le Crom (JFLC), Jhon C. N. Moreno (IAvH-E), John A. Quiroz (MEFLG), Julian Salazar (MHN-UCa), Marta Wolff (CEUA), Miguel G. Andrade (ICN-MHN-En), Alexandre Soares (MNRJ) Sinval Silveira Neto (ESALQ) and Pierre Boyer (PBF) for access to the collections under their care; Indiana C. Ríos-Málaver for providing specimen data from most of the Colombian collections; Jean-Claude Petit, Gregory Nielsen, Fredy Montero-Abril and Andrew Neild for additional distributional data; Maria Ogrzewalska for photographs of the last instar of Sea sophronia sophronia; and Augusto Rosa, Lucy M. Salik, Thamara Zacca and Tamara M.C. Aguiar for additional help with field data and museum specimens. We are extremely indebted to Dale Jenkins (in memoriam), who kindly gave us access to all of his data of Sea and Cybdelis, and Lee D. Miller (in memoriam) and Jacqueline Y. Miller, who helped AVLF when working in an embryonic phase of this study in the Allyn Museum of Entomology (Sarasota, Florida) in 1996. All authors thank Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico - CNPq (RRS fellowship 150360/2017-7; AVLF – 303834/2015-3; OHHM – 304639/2014-1; MMC – 308247/2013-2) and Coor-denação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior - CAPES (FMSD Edital 15/2014 Capes/Embrapa), AVLF thanks RedeLep-SISBIOTABrasil/CNPq (563332/2010-7), BR-BoL (MCT/CNPq/FNDCT 50/2010), FAPESP (BIOTA-FAPESP Programs 2011/50225-3, 2012/50260-6 and 2013/50297-0) NSF (DEB-1256742) and USAID (Mapping and Conserving Butterfly Biodiversity in the Brazilian Amazon).

Funding Information:
Ríos-Málaver for providing specimen data from most of the Colombian collections; Jean-Claude Petit, Gregory Nielsen, Fredy Montero-Abril and Andrew Neild for additional distributional data; Maria Ogrzewalska for photographs of the last instar of Sea sophronia sophronia; and Augusto Rosa, Lucy M. Salik, Thamara Zacca and Tamara M.C. Aguiar for additional help with field data and museum specimens. We are extremely indebted to Dale Jenkins (in memoriam), who kindly gave us access to all of his data of Sea and Cybdelis, and Lee D. Miller (in memoriam) and Jacqueline Y. Miller, who helped AVLF when working in an embryonic phase of this study in the Allyn Museum of Entomology (Sarasota, Florida) in 1996. All authors thank Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico - CNPq (RRS fellowship 150360/2017-7; AVLF – 303834/2015-3; OHHM – 304639/2014-1; MMC – 308247/2013-2) and Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior - CAPES (FMSD Edital 15/2014 Capes/Embrapa), AVLF thanks RedeLep-SISBIOTABrasil/CNPq (563332/2010-7), BR-BoL (MCT/CNPq/FNDCT 50/2010), FAPESP (BIOTA-FAPESP Programs 2011/50225-3, 2012/50260-6 and 2013/50297-0) NSF (DEB-1256742) and USAID (Mapping and Conserving Butterfly Biodiversity in the Brazilian Amazon).

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'An integrative approach elucidates the systematics of Sea Hayward and Cybdelis Boisduval (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Biblidinae)'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this