Species delimitation in Phymaturus has been a difficult task due to the highly conserved morphological and ecological features present in this genus. Almost all species of Phymaturus have been described without DNA data or lacking statistical analyses which makes even more difficult to compare species. Although two molecular phylogenetic studies have been recently published, here we provide the first multilocus phylogenetic reconstruction including all Chilean species, with samples from all type localities and some previously unsampled populations. We also estimate pairwise distances among the Chilean species of Phymaturus (P. vociferator and P. mallimaccii clades) and compare our results with the P. payuniae clade, where previous studies have used multiple lines of evidence. Additionally, we performed univariate and multivariate morphological analyses and skeletal comparisons (clavicle) for the species of the P. vociferator clade. As a result of this integrative approach, we describe a new species.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We thank M. Penna (Programa de Fisiología y Biofísica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Chile) for his support, and P. Zavala (Pontificia Universidad de Católica de Chile) for allowing us to deposit material in the SSUC Re Collection. We are grateful to the following colleagues (and museums) for allowing us to study specimens: H. Núñez (Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Chile), F. Troncoso (Museo de Historia Natural de Concepción), J. Artigas (Museo de Zoología, Universidad de Concepción). Special thanks to David Vieites (Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas) for his inestimable contribution providing the laboratory equipment and in generating the DNA sequences. F. Lobo and S. Valdecantos for provide data of P. dorsimaculatus. R. Gómez Alés, H. A. Díaz and F. Urra for their help in the field collections. D. Reyes Arellano identified the plant species and C. Garin speculated as to the possible genus of the nematodes. C. Garin, F. Cabello and J. Domínguez Bertelotto shared some pictures with us. C. Garin, H. Núñez, D. Esquerré and R. MacCulloch for their comments to the early version of the manuscript. R. Buff for his help with the map. We thank the Servicio Agrícola y Ganadero (SAG, Chile) for authorizing the capture of specimens by permission number 6967/2012. Financial support was partially provided to (AL) by Consejo de Investigaciones Científicas y Tecnológicas and partially through the LINCGlobal CSIC-PUC and the NICHE project (CGL2011-26852) of the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness as well as the CSIC-JAE PhD studentship (2010 00735)..
- New species
- Phymaturus palluma