The vector Lutzomyia sand flies and reservoir host mammals of the Leishmania parasites, causing the Andean cutaneous leishmaniasis (Andean-CL, uta) in Peru and Ecuador were thoroughly reviewed, performing a survey of literatures including our unpublished data. The Peruvian L. (V.) peruviana, a principal Leishmania species causing Andean-CL in Peru, possessed three Lutzomyia species, Lu. peruensis, Lu. verrucarum and Lu. ayacuchensis as vectors, while the Ecuadorian L. (L.) mexicana parasite possessed only one species Lu. ayacuchensis as the vector. Among these, the Ecuadorian showed a markedly higher rate of natural Leishmania infections. However, the monthly and diurnal biting activities were mostly similar among these vector species was in both countries, and the higher rates of infection (transmission) reported, corresponded to sand fly's higher monthly-activity season (rainy season). The Lu. tejadai sand fly participated as a vector of a hybrid parasite of L. (V.) braziliensis/L. (V.) peruviana in the Peruvian Andes. Dogs were considered to be principal reservoir hosts of the L. (V.) peruviana and L. (L.) mexicana parasites in both countries, followed by other sylvatic mammals such as Phyllotis andium, Didelphis albiventris and Akodon sp. in Peru, and Rattus rattus in Ecuador, but information on the reservoir hosts/mammals was extremely poor in both countries. Thus, the Peruvian disease form demonstrated more complicated transmission dynamics than the Ecuadorian. A brief review was also given to the control of vector and reservoirs in the Andes areas. Such information is crucial for future development of the control strategies of the disease.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was financially supported by the Ministry of Japan (MEXT) (Grant nos. 25257501 and 23256002).
We are indebted to Dr. Masataka Korenaga and Mrs. Kyoko Imamura, Department of Parasitology, Kochi Medical School, Kochi University, Japan, for their invaluable support during the long-term leishmaniasis research project, 1986–2015, in Ecuador, supported by the Ministry of Japan (MEXT). We are also indebted to Ecuadorian, Peruvian and Japanese colleagues for their contributions throughout the project, and to Miss Giovana De La Cruz Vasquez, the Executive Office of Scientific Information and Documentation, General Office of Information and Systems of the National Health Institute, Lima, Peru for her support in obtaining the various bibliographical references related to tegumentary leishmaniasis in Peru.
© 2017 Elsevier B.V.
- Andean cutaneous leishmaniasis (uta)
- Lutzomyia sand fly
- Natural Leishmania infection
- Reservoir mammals