Andean cutaneous leishmaniasis (Andean-CL, uta) in Peru and Ecuador: the causative Leishmania parasites and clinico-epidemiological features

Yoshihisa Hashiguchi, Eduardo A.L. Gomez, Abraham G. Cáceres, Lenin N. Velez, Nancy V. Villegas, Kazue Hashiguchi, Tatsuyuki Mimori, Hiroshi Uezato, Hirotomo Kato

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12 Scopus citations


This study provides comprehensive information on the past and current status of the Andean cutaneous leishmaniasis (Andean-CL, uta) in Peru and Ecuador, mainly focusing on the causative Leishmania parasites and clinico-epidemiological features. Available information and data including our unpublished works were analyzed thoroughly. Endemic regions of the Andean-CL (uta) in Peru run from the north Piura/Cajamarca to the south Ayacucho at a wide range of the Pacific watersheds of the Andes through several departments, while in Ecuador those exist at limited and spotted areas in the country's mid-southwestern two provinces, Azuay and Chimborazo. The principal species of the genus Leishmania are completely different at subgenus level, L. (Viannia) peruviana in Peru, and L. (Leishmania) mexicana and L. (L.) major-like (infrequent occurrence) in Ecuador. The Peruvian uta is now prevalent in different age and sex groups, being not clearly defined as found in the past. The precise reasons are not known and should be elucidated further, though probable factors, such as emergence of other Leishmania parasites, non-immune peoples’ migration into the areas, etc., were discussed briefly in the text. The Andean-CL cases in Ecuador are more rural than before, probably because of a rapid development of the Leishmania-positive communities and towns, and the change of life-styles of the inhabitants, including newly constructed houses and roads in the endemic areas. Such information is helpful for future management of the disease, not only for Leishmania-endemic areas in the Andes but also for other endemic areas.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)135-145
Number of pages11
JournalActa Tropica
StatePublished - Jan 2018

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study was financially supported by the Ministry of Japan (MEXT) (Grant nos. 25257501 and 23256002).

Funding Information:
We are indebted to Dr. Masataka Korenaga and Mrs. Kyoko Imamura, Department of Parasitology, Kochi Medical School, Kochi University, Japan, for their invaluable support during leishmaniasis research project, 1986–2015, in Ecuador, supported by the Ministry of Japan (MEXT). We are also indebted to Ecuadorian, Peruvian and Japanese colleagues for their contributions throughout the project, and to Miss Giovana De La Cruz Vásquez, the Executive Office of Scientific Information and Documentation, General Office of Information and Systems of the National Health Institute, Lima, Peru, for her support in obtaining the various bibliographical references related to tegumentary leishmaniasis in Peru.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017 Elsevier B.V.


  • Andean cutaneous leishmaniasis
  • Andean-CL (uta)
  • Clinico-epidemiological features
  • Ecuador
  • Leishmania
  • Peru


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