Biological evaluation of a mechanical ventilator that operates by controlling an automated manual resuscitator. A descriptive study in swine

Maryanne Melanie Gonzales Carazas, Cesar Miguel Gavidia, Roberto Davila Fernandez, Juan Alberto Vargas Zuñiga, Alberto Crespo Paiva, William Bocanegra, Joan Calderon, Evelyn Sanchez, Rosa Perales, Brandon Zeña, Juan Fernando Calcina Isique, Jaime Reategui, Benjamin Castañeda, Fanny L. Casado

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


The Covid-19 outbreak challenged health systems around the world to design and implement cost-effective devices produced locally to meet the increased demand of mechanical ventilators worldwide. This study evaluates the physiological responses of healthy swine maintained under volume- or pressure-controlled mechanical ventilation by a mechanical ventilator implemented to bring life-support by automating a resuscitation bag and closely controlling ventilatory parameters. Physiological parameters were monitored in eight sedated animals (t0) prior to inducing deep anaesthesia, and during the next six hours of mechanical ventilation (t1-7). Hemodynamic conditions were monitored periodically using a portable gas analyser machine (i.e. BEecf, carbonate, SaO2, lactate, pH, PaO2, PaCO2) and a capnometer (i.e. ETCO2). Electrocardiogram, echocardiography and lung ultrasonography were performed to detect in vivo alterations in these vital organs and pathological findings from necropsy were reported. The mechanical ventilator properly controlled physiological levels of blood biochemistry such as oxygenation parameters (PaO2, PaCO2, SaO2, ETCO2), acid-base equilibrium (pH, carbonate, BEecf), and perfusion of tissues (lactate levels). In addition, histopathological analysis showed no evidence of acute tissue damage in lung, heart, liver, kidney, or brain. All animals were able to breathe spontaneously after undergoing mechanical ventilation. These preclinical data, supports the biological safety of the medical device to move forward to further evaluation in clinical studies.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0264774
JournalPLoS ONE
Issue number3 March
StatePublished - Mar 2022
Externally publishedYes

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© 2022 Gonzales Carazas et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


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