Biomarkers of inflammation in HIV-infected Peruvian men and women before and during suppressive antiretroviral therapy

Eduardo Ticona, Marta E. Bull, Jaime Soria, Kenneth Tapia, Jillian Legard, Sheila M. Styrchak, Corey Williams, Caroline Mitchell, Alberto L.A. Rosa, Robert W. Coombs, Lisa M. Frenkel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


Objective: Inflammatory biomarkers associated with cardiovascular disease are elevated in HIV-infected persons. These biomarkers improve with antiretroviral therapy (ART) but do not normalize to values observed in HIV-uninfected adults. Little is known regarding biomarkers of inflammation in HIV-infected Peruvians, in whom an increased burden of infectious diseases may exacerbate inflammation, and women, in whom sex difference may alter inflammation compared with men. Methods: Peruvians initiating first-line ART were enrolled in a prospective observational study. Individuals with suppression of HIV RNA plasma loads to less than 30 copies/ml when determined quarterly over 24 months of ART, had biomarkers of inflammation and cellular activation measured pre-ART and at 24-months of ART, and evaluated for associations with sex and clinical parameters. Results: Pre-ART high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) values of men were in the high-risk cardiovascular disease category (>3.0 mg/l) more frequently compared with women (P=0.02); most women's values were in the low/average-risk categories. At 24 months of suppressive ART, hsCRP concentrations decreased in men (P=0.03), but tended to increase in women, such that the proportion with high-risk hsCRP did not differ by sex. Pre-ART, soluble CD163 concentrations were higher in women compared with men (P=0.02), and remained higher after 24 months of suppressive ART (P=0.02). All other inflammatory biomarkers (P<0.03) decreased across sexes. Biomarker concentrations were not associated with BMI or coinfections. Conclusion: Elevated inflammatory biomarkers persisted despite 24 months of suppressive ART in a subset of Peruvians, and to a greater extent in women compared with men. These findings suggest that lifestyle or pharmacologic interventions may be required to optimize the health of HIV-infected Peruvians, particularly women.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1617-1622
Number of pages6
Issue number13
StatePublished - 24 Aug 2015

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.


  • Antiretroviral therapy
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • HIV infected
  • High-sensitivity C-reactive protein
  • Inflammation
  • Interleukin-6
  • Peruvian
  • Soluble CD163


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