Canine parvovirus (CPV) has been recognized all around the world as the causal agent of a contagious and highly mortal disease in domestic dogs. In Peru, the infection is endemic and unvaccinated animals and puppies are the most at risk. In order to analyze viral diversity and determine the evolutionary genetic relationships and transmission dynamic of Peruvian CPV-2, were collected during the period of 2016–2017 rectal swabs from puppies with parvovirosis compatible symptoms. Viral DNA was amplified by PCR using primers that flanked the ends of the viral genome and sequenced by Illumina Miseq platform. Twenty-six genomic sequences (NSP1-VP1) of CPV from several districts in Lima Metropolitan area were obtained. The VP2 gene analysis demonstrated the presence of the New CPV-2a, New CPV-2b and 2c variants. The phylodynamic analysis of the viral genomes determined that all Peruvian sequences were clustered into a big clade named South American clade that emerged from the west region of Europe (Italy). The Time to the Most Recent Common Ancestor (TMRCA) of the South American clade was dated to 1993. Peruvian sequences were distributed into three subclades, and the 92% of these sequences were related to Ecuadorian CPV-2. The results suggests that three independent introduction events of virus from other countries could have occurred, in two of these events, CPV-2 from Ecuador were introduced in Peru in 2003 and 2009, and another introduction event, in 2000, from Europe. Overall, these results indicate a viral genetic relationship between Peruvian with Ecuadorian and European virus, and the circulation of several viral subpopulations in Lima Metropolitan.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We thank to Innovate Peru , (Grant 288-INNOVATEPERU-EC-2017 ) and the Vicerrectorado de Investigación y Postgrado, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos ( VRIP-UNMSM - 04274-R-17 ) for the financial support.
- South America
- Viral genome