A combined (human and porcine) mass chemotherapy program was tested in a controlled design in 12 village hamlets in the Peruvian highlands. A single dose of 5 mg of praziquantel was given to eliminate intestinal taeniasis in humans, and two rounds of oxfendazole (30 mg/kg) were administered to all pigs. The total population in the study villages was 5,658 resident individuals, and the porcine population at the beginning of the study was 716 pigs. Human treatment coverage was 75%, ranging from 69% to 80%. There were only a few refusals of owners for porcine treatment of their animals. The effect of the intervention was measured by comparing incidence rates (seroconversion in pigs who were seronegative 4 months before) in treatment versus control villages, before and up to 18 months after treatment. There was a clear effect in decreasing prevalence (odds ratio, 0.51; P < 0.001) and incidence (odds ratio, 0.39; P = 0.013) in the treatment area after the intervention, which did not leave to extinction of the parasite but stabilized in slightly decreased rates persisting along the follow-up period. Mass chemotherapy was effective in decreasing infection pressure in this hyperendemic area. However, the magnitude of the effect was small and did not attain the goal of eliminating transmission. Copyright © 2006 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.