Comparison of three reversible injectable chemical restraint protocols in Spix´s Owl monkeys (Aotus vociferans) using ketamine, xylazine and midazolam

Jessy Alfonso, Jesús Lescano, Miryam Quevedo, Víctor Fernández

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Background: There is scarce information detailing clinical and physiological effects of reversible injectable protocols of chemical restraint on Neotropical primates. Methods: Nineteen captive Spix´s Owl monkeys (Aotus vociferans) were assessed in a double-blind randomized crossover study using the following: ketamine/xylazine [KX], ketamine/midazolam [KM] and ketamine/xylazine/midazolam [KXM]. During immobilization, respiratory and pulse rates, rectal temperature, haemoglobin oxygen saturation and arterial blood pressure were recorded at 5-minute intervals during a 20-minute period; afterwards, antagonist drugs (yohimbine for xylazine and flumazenil for midazolam) were, respectively, administered. Quality and duration of induction, immobilization and recovery periods were recorded. Results: Ketamine/xylazine increased manipulation sensitivity and produced poor muscle relaxation. KM maintained all assessed parameters within physiological ranges. KXM produced depressant cardiorespiratory effects and hypotension. All protocols produced hypothermia. Conclusions: Based on its adequate anaesthetic depth and minimum effects on physiological parameters, KM is suitable for immobilizing A vociferans and performing short-term procedures lasting around 20 minutes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)136-143
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Medical Primatology
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1 Jun 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors would like to thank CIVEFAS students group from the School of Veterinary Medicine, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, for useful collaboration in the development of this study. In the same way, we would like to thank Hugo Galvez Carrillo, veterinarian, responsible of the Centre for Reproduction and Conservation of Non-human Primates, Veterinary Institute for Tropical and High-Altitude Research, Iquitos, Peru (IVITA-Iquitos, Spanish acronym) for all the facilities to work with the primates of the centre.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd


  • anaesthesia
  • flumazenil
  • hypotension
  • immobilization
  • primates
  • wildlife
  • yohimbine


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