Continuous sliding-mode control for underactuated systems: Relative degree one and two

Luis R. Ovalle, Héctor Ríos, Miguel A. Llama

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


This paper deals with the design of sliding-mode controllers for the stabilization of some types of underactuated systems. The proposed method takes advantage of the mechanical properties of three different types of underactuated systems instead of using nonlinear transformations. In order to design the controller, some sliding variables with relative degree one and two are introduced. The theoretical differences between these approaches are discussed and some simulation results show the practical differences. Experimental results on a cart–pole system are presented to validate the proposed control strategy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)342-357
Number of pages16
JournalControl Engineering Practice
StatePublished - Sep 2019
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 Elsevier Ltd


  • Continuous control
  • Relative degree
  • Sliding-mode control
  • Stabilization
  • Underactuated systems


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