COVAD survey 2 long-term outcomes: unmet need and protocol

COVAD Study Group

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Vaccine hesitancy is considered a major barrier to achieving herd immunity against COVID-19. While multiple alternative and synergistic approaches including heterologous vaccination, booster doses, and antiviral drugs have been developed, equitable vaccine uptake remains the foremost strategy to manage pandemic. Although none of the currently approved vaccines are live-attenuated, several reports of disease flares, waning protection, and acute-onset syndromes have emerged as short-term adverse events after vaccination. Hence, scientific literature falls short when discussing potential long-term effects in vulnerable cohorts. The COVAD-2 survey follows on from the baseline COVAD-1 survey with the aim to collect patient-reported data on the long-term safety and tolerability of COVID-19 vaccines in immune modulation. The e-survey has been extensively pilot-tested and validated with translations into multiple languages. Anticipated results will help improve vaccination efforts and reduce the imminent risks of COVID-19 infection, especially in understudied vulnerable groups.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2151-2158
Number of pages8
JournalRheumatology International
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
HC is supported by the National Institution for Health Research Manchester Biomedical Research Centre Funding Scheme. The views expressed in this publication are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the NHS, the National Institute for Health Research or the Department of Health.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022, The Author(s).


  • Autoimmune diseases
  • COVID-19
  • Long-term adverse effects
  • Registries
  • Vaccination


Dive into the research topics of 'COVAD survey 2 long-term outcomes: unmet need and protocol'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this