Objective: To assess olfactory function in children and to create and validate an odor identification test to diagnose olfactory dysfunction in children, which we called the Universal Sniff (U-Sniff) test. Study design: This is a multicenter study involving 19 countries. The U-Sniff test was developed in 3 phases including 1760 children age 5-7 years. Phase 1: identification of potentially recognizable odors; phase 2: selection of odorants for the odor identification test; and phase 3: evaluation of the test and acquisition of normative data. Test—retest reliability was evaluated in a subgroup of children (n = 27), and the test was validated using children with congenital anosmia (n = 14). Results: Twelve odors were familiar to children and, therefore, included in the U-Sniff test. Children scored a mean ± SD of 9.88 ± 1.80 points out of 12. Normative data was obtained and reported for each country. The U-Sniff test demonstrated a high test—retest reliability (r 27 = 0.83, P <.001) and enabled discrimination between normosmia and children with congenital anosmia with a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 86%. Conclusions: The U-Sniff is a valid and reliable method of testing olfaction in children and can be used internationally.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funded by the Medizinische Fakultät Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden (MedDrive) and the Else Kröner-Fresenius-Stiftung (to V.S.); the Postdoctoral Fellowship Program of Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (DGAPA-UNAM) (to M.G.); the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education (scientific grant Iuventus Plus # IP2014 043773 [to A.S.]); the Academy of Finland (to A.K. and M.S.); the Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports (MEYS) of the Czech Republic under the NPU I program, the PROGRES program Q22 at the Faculty of Humanities, Charles University within the Institutional Support for Long-Term Development of Research Organizations from MEYS, and by the Czech Science Foundation (GA17-14534S) (to L.N.); the Deustche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG HU 411/181 [to T.H.]); the Technology Agency of the Czech Republic (TA04011114 [to J.V.]); and the Swedish Foundation for Humanities and Social Sciences (M14-0375:1 [to M.L. and M.N.]). The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
© 2018 Elsevier Inc.
- Sniffin’ Sticks
- olfactory dysfunction
- smell testing