Ecotoxicological aquatic and terrestrial risk of biopesticide sandbox tree, Hura crepitans (Euphorbiaceae)

J. A. Iannacone, H. Ayala, L. Alvariño, C. Paredes Espinal, W. Villegas, J. Alomia, S. Santos, N. Nolazco, L. Cruces

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3 Scopus citations


All rights reserved. Hura crepitans (sandbox tree) Linnaeus (Euphorbiaceae) is a native plant of America. The aim of this study was to assess the ecotoxicological risk (REA) of the biopesticide H. crepitans. Values of sandbox toxicity for 42 endpoints on 30 aquatic and terrestrial species were determined. The toxicity values (LC(E/I)50, NOEC or LOEC) obtained for aquatic and terrestrial species were compared with the average application rate of sandbox aqueous extract for cotton pests (30000 mg ai L-1), observed that this concentration would cause a risk to all aquatic species (100%) and 17 terrestrial species (94.44%). With a second method for determining the REA, the LC50 values at 48 h larva Spodoptera frugiperda, pest in com and sugar cane were taken, and was compared with the levels of toxicity to non-target aquatic and terrestrial species, risk observed upon four aquatic species (50%) (.Daphnia magna, Chironomus calligraphus, Isochrysis galbana and Paracheirodon innesi) and six terrestrial species (33.3%) (Apis mellifera, Orius insidiosus, Eisenia foetida, Trichogramma cacoeciae, Medicago sativa and Chrysoperla as oral is). Saponins and flavonoids are the possible functional groups of importance regarding sandbox toxicity.
Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)50-62
Number of pages13
JournalRevista de Toxicologia
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Aquatic toxicity
  • Ecotoxicological risk
  • Hura crepitans
  • Sandbox
  • Terrestrial toxicity


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