We evaluated the efficacy and effectiveness of mefloquine (MQ) plus artesunate (AS) to treat patients with uncomplicated malaria in the Peruvian Amazon Basin in April 2005.March 2006. Patients ≥1 year of age with fever (axillary temperature ≥ 37.5°C) or history of fever and Plasmodium falciparum monoinfection were included. Patients received antimalarial treatment with MQ (12.5 mg/kg/day for two days) and AS (4.0 mg/kg/day for three days) either by directly observed therapy or without directly observed therapy. After a 28-day follow-up, treatment efficacy and effectiveness were assessed on the basis of clinical and parasitologic outcomes. Ninety-six patients were enrolled in each study group; nine patients were lost to follow-up. All patients, except for one in the observed group, demonstrated adequate clinical and parasitologic response; none had detectable parasitemia on day 3. The efficacy of MQ + AS efficacy was 98.9% (95% confidence interval = 188.8.131.52%) and the effectiveness was 100.0% (95% confidence interval = 184.108.40.206%). Our study shows that MQ + AS is highly efficacious in the Peruvian Amazon.