Enteric viral infections among domesticated south american camelids: First detection of mammalian orthoreovirus in camelids

Dayana Castilla, Victor Escobar, Sergio Ynga, Luis Llanco, Alberto Manchego, César Lázaro, Dennis Navarro, Norma Santos, Miguel Rojas

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1 Scopus citations


Enteric infections are a major cause of neonatal death in South American camelids (SACs). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of enteric viral pathogens among alpacas and llamas in Canchis, Cuzco, located in the southern Peruvian highland. Fecal samples were obtained from 80 neonatal alpacas and llamas and tested for coronavirus (CoV), mammalian orthoreovirus (MRV), and rotavirus A (RVA) by RT-PCR. Of the 80 fecal samples analyzed, 76 (95%) were positive for at least one of the viruses tested. Overall, the frequencies of positive samples were 94.1% and 100% among alpacas and llamas, respectively. Of the positive samples, 33 (43.4%) were monoinfected, while 43 (56.6%) had coinfections with two (83.7%) or three (16.3%) viruses. CoV was the most commonly detected virus (87.5%) followed by MRV (50%). RVA was detected only in coinfections. To our knowledge, this is the first description of MRV circulation in SACs or camelids anywhere. These data show that multiple viruses circulate widely among young alpaca and llama crias within the studied areas. These infections can potentially reduce livestock productivity, which translates into serious economic losses for rural communities, directly impacting their livelihoods.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1455
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study was supported by CONCYTEC-FONDECYT en el marco de la convocatoria “Proyecto Investigación Básica 2019-01” (grant numbers 355-2019) and by the Vicerrectorado de Investigación y Posgrado de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos en el marco de la convocatoria “Proyecto de Investigación con financiamiento para Grupos de Investigación 2021”. This study was also partially supported by the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq grant numbers 404984/2018-5 and 301469/2018-0) and the Fundação Carlos Chagas de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (FAPERJ, grant number E-26/202.909/2017).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • Alpacas
  • Coronavirus
  • Llamas
  • Mammalian orthoreovirus
  • Peru
  • Rotavirus


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