In most developing countries, 10% of acute neurologic cases are patients with neurocysticercosis (NCC). Determining specific factors associated with contracting NCC will facilitate its diagnosis and prevention. We examined multiple socioeconomic, demographic, environmental, medical, and behavioral characteristics of 946 Peruvian neurologic patients for a correlation with NCC, which was diagnosed by the highly specific and sensitive electroimmunotransfer blot (EITB) or immunoblot assay. Eighteen percent (172 of 932) of serum samples and 28% (101 of 362) of cerebrospinal fluid samples were EITB positive. The proportion of EITB-positive persons was similar for all socioeconomic levels. Significant factors associated with NCC were: 1) being born outside Lima, 2) having raised pigs, 3) more than 20 years of age, 4) a history of seizures, and 5) a history of taeniasis. Of these factors, raising pigs is the only one that is amenable to intervention, via improvements in animal husbandry.