In this work, we make the first step to derive nonradial pulsation equations in extra dimensions and investigate how the f- and p1-mode frequencies of strange quark stars, within the Cowling approximation, change with the number of dimensions. In this regard, the study is performed by solving numerically the nonradial pulsation equations, adjusted for a d-dimensional spacetime (d≥4). We connect the interior to a Schwarzschild-Tangherlini exterior metric and analyze the f- and p1- mode frequencies. We found that the frequencies could become higher than those found in four-dimensional spacetime. The f-mode frequency is essentially constant and only for large gravitational radius values grows monotonically and fast with the gravitational radius. In a gravitational radius range, where f-mode frequencies are constant, they increase for spacetime dimensions 4≤d≤6 and decrease for d≥7. Regarding p1-mode frequencies they are always larger for higher dimensions and decay monotonically with the increase of the gravitational radius. In extra dimensions, as it happens for four-dimensional spacetime, we found p1-mode frequencies are always larger than the f-modes ones. In the Newtonian gravity, for a homogeneous star in d dimensions, we observe that the f-mode eigenfrequencies are constant and given by the relation ω2=lMGd/Rd-1, where l represents the spherical harmonic index, MGd is the total star mass and R the stellar radius. For some gravitational radius interval, we show that a homogeneous star in Newtonian gravity is a good approximation to investigate the f-mode frequency of strange stars in the relativistic frame. In each dimension considered, we find that the f-mode frequencies of strange stars are essentially constant since they depend on the average star energy density that is almost constant as a function of the total star mass. Moreover, for a fixed energy density, we also find that the f-mode frequency changes with the volume of the unitary sphere in the d-1 dimension, which attains its maximum value at d=6. In neutron stars in four dimensions, where the average energy density of the star increases with the central energy density, the f-mode frequencies will increase with the star mass. Thus, the possibility to measure in gravitational wave detectors the f-mode oscillation frequency coming from compact stars with different pulsar masses and observe almost constant frequency values, for d=4, in the range f∼2-3 [kHz] with M≤1.8 M⊙, it would be a good sign of the existence of strange quark stars that still lack an astronomical confirmation. Finally, if the f-mode frequencies are still constant and different from the range values of d=4 for larger total masses, it would be evidence that quarks can propagate in extra spacetime dimensions and strange quark stars in d dimension could exist.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We would like to thank Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa de São Paulo-FAPESP, under the thematic project Grant No. 2013/26258-4. M. M. is also grateful to Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico-CNPq and Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior-CAPES for financial support.
© 2020 American Physical Society.