General biochemical and immunological characteristics of the venom from Peruvian scorpion Hadruroides lunatus

F. Costal-Oliveira, C. G. Duarte, R. A. Machado de Avila, M. M. Melo, K. C.F. Bordon, E. C. Arantes, N. C. Paredes, B. Tintaya, C. Bonilla, R. E. Bonilla, W. S. Suarez, A. Yarleque, J. M. Fernandez, E. Kalapothakis, Carlos Chávez-Olórtegui

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10 Scopus citations


This communication describes the general biochemical properties and some immunological characteristics of the venom from the Peruvian scorpion Hadruroides lunatus, which is the most medically relevant species in Peru. The soluble venom of this scorpion is toxic to mice, the LD50 determined was 0.1 mg/kg and 21.55 mg/kg when the venom was injected intracranial or intraperitoneally, respectively. The soluble venom displayed proteolytic, hyaluronidasic, phospholipasic and cardiotoxic activities. High performance liquid chromatography of the soluble venom resulted in the separation of 20 fractions. Two peptides with phospholipasic activity were isolated to homogeneity and their molecular masses determined by mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF). Anti-H. lunatus venom sera were produced in rabbits. Western blotting analysis showed that most of the protein content of this venom is immunogenic. H. lunatus anti-venom displayed consistent cross-reactivity with venom antigens from the new World-scorpions Tityus serrulatus and Centruroides sculpturatus venoms; however, a weaker reactivity was observed against the venom antigens from the old World-scorpion Androctonus australis Hector.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)934-942
Number of pages9
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 2012
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported by Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior, Brazil – CAPES (Toxinologia No 23038000825/2011-63 ), Fundação de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais, Brazil (FAPEMIG) and by funds of the INCTTOX Program of Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico , Brazil (CNPq). The authors gratefully acknowledge the support and assistance of the Instituto Nacional de Salud, Peru.


  • Anti-H. lunatus sera
  • Hadruroides lunatus scorpion venom
  • LD
  • Phospholipasic activity


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