© 2020 by the authors. Research Highlights: This study assesses the genetic diversity and structure of the ice-cream-bean (Inga edulis Mart.; Fabaceae) in wild and cultivated populations from the Peruvian Amazon. This research also highlights the importance of protecting the biodiversity of the forest in the Peruvian Amazon, to preserve the genetic resources of species and allow further genetic improvement. Background and Objectives: Ice-cream-bean is one of the most commonly used species in the Amazon region for its fruits and for shading protection of other species (e.g., cocoa and coffee plantations). Comprehensive studies about the impact of domestication on this species' genetic diversity are needed, to find the best conservation and improvement strategies. Materials and Methods: In the current study, the genetic structure and diversity were assessed by genotyping 259 trees, sampled in five wild and 22 cultivated I. edulis populations in the Peruvian Amazon, with microsatellite markers. Pod length was measured in wild and cultivated trees. Results: The average pod length in cultivated trees was significantly higher than that in wild trees. The expected genetic diversity and the average number of alleles was higher in the wild compared to the cultivated populations; thus, a loss of genetic diversity was confirmed in the cultivated populations. The cultivated trees in the Loreto region had the highest pod length and lowest allelic richness; nevertheless, the wild populations' genetic structure was not clearly differentiated (significantly different) from that of the cultivated populations. Conclusions: A loss of genetic diversity was confirmed in the cultivated populations. The species could have been simultaneously domesticated in multiple locations, usually from local origin. The original I. edulis Amazonian germplasm should be maintained. Cultivated populations' new germplasm influx from wild populations should be undertaken to increase genetic diversity.