Genotyping of sand fly species circulating in Peru was established on the basis of PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) of the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. The sequences of 18S rRNA gene fragments from 12 Lutzomyia and 1 Warileya species were determined and their RFLP-patterns were analyzed. Consequently, RFLP analysis with the restriction enzyme AfaI and then HapII or KpnI, followed by XspI successfully differentiated them. Intraspecific genetic diversity affecting RFLP-patterns was not detected in the specimens collected from 24 areas of 8 departments. The genotyping was applied to the surveillance of sand flies collected from Andean areas where leishmaniasis is endemic, and its usability was verified. The present method promises to be a powerful tool for the classification and surveillance of sand flies circulating in Peru. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.