Human Papillomavirus, Cytomegalovirus Infection and P16 Staining in Breast Tumors from Peruvian Women

Gabriela Calderon, Carlos A. Castaneda, Miluska Castillo, Joselyn Sanchez, Luis Bernabe, Nancy Suarez, Katherine Tello, Ebert Torres, Jose M. Cotrina, Jorge Dunstan, Miguel De-La-Cruz, Julio Abugattas, Henry Guerra, Javier E. Manrique, Francisco Aguayo, Henry L. Gomez

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Objective: To evaluate the frequency distribution of viral infections in Peruvian Breast Cancer (BC) lesions and its association with clinicopathological features. Additionally, a prospective evaluation of p16 and Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) levels were performed for developing a comprehensive analysis. Methods: Detection of high risk- human papillomavirus (HR- HPV) through qPCR was performed in 447 BC and 79 non-cancer frozen samples. Paired paraffin samples from 238 BC were stained with Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and p16 immunohistochemistry. TIL was calculated in 397 BC cases. Results: HCMV was positive in 72.5%. HR- HPV was detected in 2.9% of BC and 1.3% of non-malignant samples. P16+ was found in 28.15% and median TIL percentage was 30. HR- HPV infection was associated with non-ductal histology (p=0.003) and p16+ (p=0.017). Positive P16+ was associated with higher T stage (p=0.022), grade (p=0.009), TIL level (p=0.002), and triple-negative phenotype (p=0.021). Conclusion: HCMV is frequent, but HR- HPV infection is unusual in Peruvian BC. P16+ is associated with HR- PVH infection, high TIL and aggressive features.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1571-1576
Number of pages6
JournalAsian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
Issue number5
StatePublished - 2022
Externally publishedYes

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  • Human papillomavirus- cytomegalovirus- p16 protein- polymerase chain reaction-immunohistochemistry


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