Aims: To determine the effect of three different freezing temperatures on post-freeze-drying survival rates of wine yeasts and lactic acid bacteria (LAB). To know if a similar freeze-drying protocol can be used for both micro-organisms. Methods and Results: Cells from liquid culture media were recovered and concentrated in appropriate lyoprotectants. Aliquots of each strain were frozen at −20, −80 and −196°C before vacuum drying. Viable cell counts were done before freezing and after freeze-drying. Survival rates were calculated. Freezing temperatures differently affected yeast and bacteria survival. The highest survival rates were obtained at −20 and −80°C for yeasts, but at −196°C for LAB. Major differences in survival rates were recorded among freeze-dried yeasts, but were less drastic for LAB. Yeasts Pichia membranifaciens, Starmerella bacillaris and Metschnikowia pulcherrima, and LAB Lactobacillus paracasei, Pediococcus parvulus and Lactobacillus mali, were the most tolerant species to freeze-drying, regardless of freezing temperature. Conclusions: Yeast and LAB survival rates differed for each tested freezing temperature. For yeasts, −20°C ensured the highest post-freeze-drying viability and −196°C for LAB. Significance and Impact of the Study: Freezing temperature to freeze-dry cells is a crucial factor for ensuring good wine yeast and LAB survival. These results are important for appropriately preserving micro-organisms and for improving starter production processes.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the Ministry of Education and Science, the National Institute for Agricultural Research (INIA) and European Regional Development Funds (ERDF) through Project RM2007-00007-00-00. We acknowledge Helen Warburton revising the English language.
© 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology
Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.
- lactic acid bacteria