Laser-induced fluorescence and FT-Raman spectroscopy for characterizing patinas on stone substrates

M. Oujja, C. Vázquez-Calvo, M. Sanz, M. Álvarez De Buergo, R. Fort, M. Castillejo

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This article reports on a compositional investigation of stone patinas: thin colored layers applied for protective and/or aesthetic purposes on architectural or sculptural substrates of cultural heritage. The analysis and classification of patinas provide important information of historic and artistic interest, as their composition reflects local practices, the availabilities of different materials, and the development of technological knowledge during specific historical periods. Model patinas fabricated according to traditional procedures and applied onto limestone, and a historic patina sample from the main façade of the San Blas Monastery in Lerma (a village in the province of Burgos, Spain), were analyzed by laser-induced fluorescence and Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy. The results obtained demonstrate the ability of these two analytical techniques to identify the key components of each formulation and those of the reaction products which result from the chemical and mineralogical transformations that occur during aging, as well as to provide information that can aid the classification of different types of patinas.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1433-1441
Number of pages9
JournalAnalytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Issue number4
StatePublished - Feb 2012
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Acknowledgements This work has been funded by the Madrid Regional Government project Geomateriales (S2009/Mat-1629) and by the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación under projects CTQ2010-15680 and CONSOLIDER CSD2007-00058. The authors also thank the research group from Universidad Complutense de Madrid: “Alteración y Conservación de los Materiales Pétreos del Patrimonio.”


  • FT-Raman spectroscopy
  • Laser-induced fluorescence
  • Patinas
  • Stone substrates


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