Objective: To investigate the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) nasal carriage in rural and urban community settings of Bolivia and Peru. Methods: MRSA nasal carriage was investigated in 585 individuals living in rural and urban areas of Bolivia and Peru (one urban area, one small rural village, and two native communities, one of which was highly isolated). MRSA isolates were subjected to molecular analysis for the detection of virulence genes, characterization of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCC. mec), and genotyping (multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)). Results: An overall very low prevalence of MRSA nasal carriage was observed (0.5%), with MRSA carriers being detected only in a small rural village of the Bolivian Chaco. The three MRSA isolates showed the characteristics of community-associated MRSA (being susceptible to all non-beta-lactam antibiotics and harboring the SCC. mec type IV), were clonally related, and belonged to ST1649. Conclusions: This study provides an insight into the epidemiology of MRSA in community settings of Bolivia and Peru. Reliable, time-saving, and low-cost methods should be implemented to encourage continued surveillance of MRSA dissemination in resource-limited countries.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was supported by the European Commission ALFAII Programme (BACTERIALNET project, contract number AML/19.0901/06/18414/II-0531-FC-FA-FCD-FI) and by grants from the Italian Ministry for Foreign Affairs (‘Fortalecimiento de la red de salud del Chaco Boliviano: una perspectiva comunitaria’), the Ente Cassa di Risparmio di Firenze (Florence, Italy), and the Regione Toscana, Italy (‘Toscana e Chaco, 25 anni di cooperazione sanitaria: un passo decisivo verso il contenimento della diffusione delle resistenze batteriche agli antibiotici’).
- Community settings
- Latin America
- Nasal carriage
- Staphylococcus aureus