Natural iron oxides are very common in nature and are the main components of many minerals, rocks and soils. There are a great variety of these minerals in Peru, especially in the Andes region. The mineral studied was extracted from the Taraco District in the Huancané Province of the Puno Region. The extracted sample is a yellowish mineral with very small particles which is called limonite. X-ray diffraction indicates the presence of goethite as the principal mineralogical phase and quartz as the secondary phase. The 57Fe Mössbauer spectra at room temperature show broadened spectra that were fitted using a distribution model. The most probable field of the magnetic component is 21T, corresponding to the presence of small particles of goethite, confirmed by the 4.2 K spectrum. MS of the calcinated sample in air at 900°C show the presence of two hematite sextets, one related to bulk particles and another to surface particles. Chemical analysis using Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer indicates that O and Fe are the major components; other elements such as Al, Si, Mg and Ca are also present. © 2006 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.