The use of accurate and reliable techniques for sex determination of wild birds is of special importance in captive breeding programs, especially in birds with monogamous, aggressive behavior, with absence of copulation, and with a low hatching rate. Using PCR, we evaluated the relative efficacy of primers HPF/HPR and CHD1Wr/NP/CHD1Zr in the amplification of the chromo-helicase-DNA binding 1 (CHD1) gene for sex determination in Penelope albipennis and 8 other species of cracids, 4 species of falconids, 4 species of accipitrids, and 3 species of psittacines. Primer effectiveness was compared using previously sexed bird samples. The HPF/HPR primer set was found to demonstrate a better performance and reliability. Therefore, these primers should be used to determine the sex of juvenile birds to avoid or minimize incompatibilities during the selection of potential breeding pairs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)47-54
Number of pages8
JournalSexual Development
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Apr 2019

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We would like to thank Doctor Andrew L. Feldman for his revision and comments on the manuscript, the Crax-Peru Association and Wildlife and Fish Breeding Farm for the facilities provided for the process of collecting samples, and the National Innovation Program for Competitiveness and Productivity (Innovate Peru) for the financial support of the present study in the framework to contract 409-PNICP-PIAP-2014. This work is a partial fulfilment of a Master thesis requirement (C.F. Diaz-Casana), Post Graduate School in Molecular Biology, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Peru.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.


  • CHD1
  • Cracidae
  • Penelope albipennis
  • Sex determination


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