Leptospirosis, an endemic zoonoses, is maintained in the environment by several wildlife species in the Peruvian Amazon. In order to evaluate the possible role of collared peccaries (CP) in the maintenance this disease, two serological surveys of leptospirosis were performed and zootechnical parameters were monitored in a captive CP colony in an interval of 27 months. Total seroprevalence changed from 100% (n = 27) to 86.4% (n = 22), with reactions to a diversity of serogroups of zoonotic importance. Serological reactions to Leptospira licerasiae serogroup Iquitos, a new species recently identified locally and Leptospira interrogans serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae were highly prevalent. The observation of leptospiral antibodies in both surveys, changes on serological reactions to different serogroups in large part of the herd and poor reproductive performances, provided an indication of the role of CP farms as a favourable environment for maintaining leptospirosis. Further research regarding the role of CP in the epidemiology of leptospirosis in the Peruvian Amazon is encouraged. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.