When cements appeared in the 19th century, they took the place of traditional binding materials (lime, gypsum, and hydraulic lime) which had been used until that time. Early cements can be divided into two groups, natural and artificial (Portland) cements. Natural cements were introduced first, but their widespread usage was short-lived as they were quickly replaced by artificial cements (Portland), still the most important and predominant today. The main differences between natural and artificial cements arise during the manufacturing process. The final properties of the cements are greatly influenced by differences in the raw materials and burning temperatures employed. The aim of this paper is to assess the efficiency of traditional analytical techniques (petrographic microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)) used to differentiate natural and artificial cements. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Varas, M. J., De Buergo, M. A., & Fort, R. (2005). Natural cement as the precursor of Portland cement: Methodology for its identification. Cement and Concrete Research, 2055-2065. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2004.10.045