Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is endemic in most parts of the world and is now recognised as an important contributor to neurological disease. Serological diagnosis of NCC improved greatly in the past two decades and contributed to demonstrating previously unsuspected regions of endemicity. Claims for an accurate serological screening tool for human cysticercosis are frequently raised. However, after symptomatic therapeutics are applied, management of NCC is driven by the characteristics of the central nervous system infection in terms of viability, number, location size and evolutionary stage of parasites, as well as by the resulting inflammation. It is unclear whether, in the absence of neuroimaging, serological confirmation of aetiology of suspected cases (neurologically symptomatic) or detection of asymptomatic cases in population screening would affect their management or prognosis. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.