Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the mannose phosphate isomerase (mpi) gene was applied to 134 skin samples collected from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Peru for identification of the infecting parasite at the species level, and the results were compared with those of cytochrome b (cyt b) gene sequencing obtained in previous studies. Although most results (121/134) including 4 hybrids of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and L. (V.) peruviana corresponded to those obtained in the previous study, PCR-RFLP analyses revealed the distribution of putative hybrid strains between L. (V.) peruviana and L. (V.) lainsoni in two samples, which has never been reported. Moreover, parasite strains showing discordance between kinetoplast and nuclear genes (kDNA and nDNA), so-called mito-nuclear discordance, were identified in 11 samples. Of these, six strains had the kDNAs of L. (V.) braziliensis or L. (V.) peruviana and nDNAs of L. (V.) guyanensis, and three strains had the kDNAs of L. (V.) shawi and nDNAs of L. (V.) braziliensis. The rest were identified as mito-nuclear discordance strains having kDNAs of L. (V.) braziliensis or L. (V.) peruviana and nDNAs of L. (V.) lainsoni, and kDNAs of L. (V.) lainsoni and nDNAs of L. (V.) braziliensis. The results demonstrate that Leishmania strains in Peru are genetically more complex than previously considered.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was financially supported by the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) of Japan (Grant Nos. 25257501 and 17H01685). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
© 2020 Tabbabi et al.