In the literature, particularly in primatological books, the Peruvian red uakari (Cacajao calvus ucayalii) is generally considered as a species that is specialized on living in flooded forest, despite existing evidence to the contrary. Here we review all available information on habitats where Cacajao calvus ucayalii have been observed. Most sightings are from terra firme, including palm swamps, or from mixed habitats, including terra firme and flooded forest. Therefore, we conclude that the species is not a flooded-forest specialist, but is flexible in its habitat requirements and generally uses terra firme forests or a mixture of habitats. Proper recognition of habitat requirements is important for understanding the ecoethological adaptations of a species and for appropriate conservation measures.
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Acknowledgments We thank two anonymous reviewers and Joanna Setchell for their constructive comments on the manuscript. E. W. Heymann thanks his field assistants Camilo Flores Amasifuén and Ney Shahuano Tello and all of his students who reported their sightings of red uakaris at the Estación Biológica Quebrada Blanco. Research by E. W. Heymann in the Quebrada Blanco area was supported by grants from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and the Arthur von Gwinner-Stifung, and counted with research permits from the Instituto Nacional de Recursos Naturales (INRENA) in Lima.
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