Phylogenetic relationships of a new genus and species of stevardiine fish (Characiformes: Characidae: Stevardiinae) from the Río Amazonas basin, Peru

James A. Vanegas-Ríos, Dario R. Faustino-Fuster, Vanessa Meza-Vargas, Hernán Ortega

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Varicharax nigrolineatus, a new genus and species of stevardiine fish, is described from the Río Amazonas basin, Peru, based on a comprehensive phylogenetic comparison with other characids. Two data sets (A: combined morphological and molecular matrix, 474 species and 6,653 characters; B: morphological matrix, 216 species and 524 characters) were used to estimate the phylogenetic relationships of the new genus. Morphological and molecular data from these data sets were taken from two previously published matrices on characids. Varicharax nigrolineatus is phylogenetically diagnosed by 18 autapomorphies in total (from both data sets), which are related to different anatomical characteristics of the neurocranium, body, and fins. Furthermore, V. nigrolineatus can be easily differentiated from all characids (except Acrobrycon in part) by the following combination of characters: the presence of a hypertrophied caudal-fin squamation on the lower caudal-fin lobe forming a remarkable pouch-like structure, consisting of multiple series of large adjacent scales (being almost similar or slightly more pronounced in males than in females), the presence of caudal-fin bony hooks on the lower lobe in adult males, complete lateral line, and a dark mid-lateral stripe that extends from the posterior border of the head to caudal peduncle. In the resulting topologies from both data sets, the phylogenetic placement of V. nigrolineatus was well supported within Stevardiinae. Additionally, V. nigrolineatus was resolved within the tribe Stevardiini as sister group of a clade formed by Chrysobrycon + Pseudocorynopoma and Corynopoma + Gephyrocharax in the final hypothesis from the combined data set, whereas in the final topology from the morphological data set, V. nigrolineatus was placed as sister group of a clade comprised of Acrobrycon and the Stevardiini without Argopleura.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)387-407
Number of pages21
JournalJournal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research
Volume58
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Feb 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We are grateful to the following individuals and institutions that offered innumerable types of help and assistance: Barbara Brown (AMNH); Mariangeles Arce, John Lundberg, Mark Sabaj, and Kyle Luckenbill (ANSP); Carlos Ardila‐Rodríguez (CAR); Jon Fong and Dave Catania (CAS); Juan M. Mirande, Gastón Aguilera, and Guillermo Terán (CI‐FML); Luz Jiménez (CIUA); Jaider M. Peña, Francisco Villa‐Navarro, Gladys Reinoso‐Flórez (CZUT‐IC); Mary Rogers, Leo Smith, Philip Willink, Susan Mochel, Kevin Swagel, and Chris Jones (FMNH); José I. Mojica (ICNMHN); Armando Ortega‐Lara, Gian C. Sánchez, and Raúl Ríos (IMCN, INCIVA); Chris Taylor, Mike Retzer, and Daniel Wylie (INHS); Christine Thacker, Molly Sjöberg, and Katie Kramer (LACM); Francisco Provenzano (MBUCV); Carlos Lucena and Margarete Lucena (MCP); Karsten Hartel and Andrew Williston (MCZ); Ramiro Barriga (MEPN); Sonia Fisch‐Muller (MHNG); María de las Mercedes Azpelicueta, Jorge Casciotta and Adriana Almirón (MLP); Max Hidalgo, Junior Chuctaya (MUSM); Lars Lundquist (MZLU); Bodil Kajrup and Sven O. Kullander (NRM); Stefan Koerber (Peces Criollos); Phillip Willink (Shedd Aquarium); Ruth Reina (in memoriam) and Eldregde Bermingham (STRI); Larry Page and Rob Robins (UF); Mabel Maldonado (UMSS), and Sandra Raredon (USNM). This research was supported by a postdoctoral grant awarded by CONICET‐Argentina to the senior author and CAPES Foundation, Ministry of Education of Brazil to DRF‐F and VM‐V. Additional financial support was received from FONCYT (PICT‐2017‐1938 to JAV‐R). The communication of the present work in the II International Symposium on Phylogeny and Classification of Neotropical Fishes (“Vari's Legacy Funding” by means of Brian Sidlauskas) was supported by the Smithsonian Institution and the organizing committee. The senior author is indebted to J. M. Mirande (CI‐FML) and M. M. Azpelicueta (MLP) for permanent advice and support and especially for the useful comments suggested during the course of this work. This paper was greatly enriched by the comments of two reviewers. TNT is provided free by the Willi Hennig Society.

Funding Information:
We are grateful to the following individuals and institutions that offered innumerable types of help and assistance: Barbara Brown (AMNH); Mariangeles Arce, John Lundberg, Mark Sabaj, and Kyle Luckenbill (ANSP); Carlos Ardila-Rodr?guez (CAR); Jon Fong and Dave Catania (CAS); Juan M. Mirande, Gast?n Aguilera, and Guillermo Ter?n (CI-FML); Luz Jim?nez (CIUA); Jaider M. Pe?a, Francisco Villa-Navarro, Gladys Reinoso-Fl?rez (CZUT-IC); Mary Rogers, Leo Smith, Philip Willink, Susan Mochel, Kevin Swagel, and Chris Jones (FMNH); Jos? I. Mojica (ICNMHN); Armando Ortega-Lara, Gian C. S?nchez, and Ra?l R?os (IMCN, INCIVA); Chris Taylor, Mike Retzer, and Daniel Wylie (INHS); Christine Thacker, Molly Sj?berg, and Katie Kramer (LACM); Francisco Provenzano (MBUCV); Carlos Lucena and Margarete Lucena (MCP); Karsten Hartel and Andrew Williston (MCZ); Ramiro Barriga (MEPN); Sonia Fisch-Muller (MHNG); Mar?a de las Mercedes Azpelicueta, Jorge Casciotta and Adriana Almir?n (MLP); Max Hidalgo, Junior Chuctaya (MUSM); Lars Lundquist (MZLU); Bodil Kajrup and Sven O. Kullander (NRM); Stefan Koerber (Peces Criollos); Phillip Willink (Shedd Aquarium); Ruth Reina (in memoriam) and Eldregde Bermingham (STRI); Larry Page and Rob Robins (UF); Mabel Maldonado (UMSS), and Sandra Raredon (USNM). This research was supported by a postdoctoral grant awarded by CONICET-Argentina to the senior author and CAPES Foundation, Ministry of Education of Brazil to DRF-F and VM-V. Additional financial support was received from FONCYT (PICT-2017-1938 to JAV-R). The communication of the present work in the II International Symposium on Phylogeny and Classification of Neotropical Fishes (?Vari's Legacy Funding? by means of Brian Sidlauskas) was supported by the Smithsonian Institution and the organizing committee. The senior author is indebted to J. M. Mirande (CI-FML) and M. M. Azpelicueta (MLP) for permanent advice and support and especially for the useful comments suggested during the course of this work. This paper was greatly enriched by the comments of two reviewers. TNT is provided free by the Willi Hennig Society.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 Blackwell Verlag GmbH

Copyright:
Copyright 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

Keywords

  • Neotropical freshwater fish
  • Stevardiini
  • Varicharax gen. nov.
  • Varicharax nigrolineatus sp. nov.
  • sexual dimorphism

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