Laccopetalum giganteum (Ranunculaceae) is a rare endemic buttercup from the montane regions of the Peruvian Andes. The systematic position of this monotypic genus within Ranunculaceae was investigated using cpDNA matK sequence data. Our findings indicate that L. giganteum forms a highly supported clade together with Krapfia. Several morphological characters are shared by these genera; large subglobose and fleshy flowers, presence of androgynophore with a separated staminal and carpellate region and many tiny achenes. The Laccopetalum-Krapfia clade is sister to the core Ranunculus group with a high bootstrap support. The number of sepals and similar characteristics of achene morphology support an affinity of Laccopetalum with Ranunculus s.s tr. © 2006 Springer-Verlag.