Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of the pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.) almond oil obtained by handmade and cold-pressed processes

L. R.O. Torres, F. B. Shinagawa, F. C. Santana, E. S. Araújo, M. V.C. Oropeza, L. F.L. Macedo, L. B. Almeida-Muradian, H. C. Lima, J. Mancini-Filho

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8 Scopus citations

Abstract

The aim of this study is to characterize physical and chemically and determine the antioxidant capacity of pequi almond oils (PAO) extracted by handmade and by cold-pressing. Both oils showed good quality by acid, peroxide and thiobarbituric acid values. The fatty acid (FA) profile showed a significant presence of monounsaturated FA, mainly oleic acid (53.48 to 55.41 %); saturated FA, such as palmitic acid (33.30 to 35.89 %); and polyunsaturated FA (PUFA), such as linoleic acid (5.85 to 7.23 %). The total phenolic (TP) and carotenoid content ranged in concentration from 87.56 to 392.00 mg GAE/100 g and 36.03 to 262.40 mg/100 g, respectively. The tocopherol and phytosterol results indicated the predominant presence of a-tocopherol (52 to 67 %) and stigmasterol (63 to 68 %). The antioxidant capacity of PAO as measured using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method oscillated from 58.48 mg/mL to 76.46 mg/ mL (IC50), from 10.61 to 40.46 μmol TE/g by the 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6- sulphonic acid) (ABTS•+) method, and from 113.93 to 280.85 μmol TE/100 g and 164.49 to 277.86 μmol TE/100 g, by the lipophilic and hydrophilic oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) methods, respectively. The oils presented a good oxidative and thermal stability by Rancimat method (IP of 7.33 a 15.91 h) and curves thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry (To 337-363 °C and 159-184 °C, respectively). The results confirmed the presence of compounds that conferred antioxidant capacity and oxidative and thermal resistance for PAO made by handmade or cold-pressing, indicating that these oils can potentially be used for food and non-food applications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1541-1551
Number of pages11
JournalInternational Food Research Journal
Volume23
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2016

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The corresponding author (L. R. O. TORRES) is grateful to the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES) and to the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) for financial support at the University of S?o Paulo. We are also grateful to the Maranh?o Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology for release to attend the doctoral program and to John Harris for assistance with English review.

Keywords

  • Antioxidant capacity
  • Cold-pressed process
  • Fatty acids
  • Pequi almond oils
  • Thermal behavior

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