© 2014 King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre. Purpose To determine the frequency of PIK3CA mutations in a Peruvian cohort with HER2-amplified and triple negative breast cancers (TNBC).Methods We analyzed two cohorts of 134 primary non-metastatic breast cancer patients from Peru. Cohorts consisted of 51 hormone receptors (+)/HER2-amplified breast tumor patients surgically resected as first treatment included in the ALTTO trial (ALTTO cohort) and 81 TNBC patients with residual disease after neoadjuvant treatment (neoadjuvant cohort). Genomic DNA was extracted from paraffin-embedded tumor samples. Samples from the ALTTO and neoadjuvant cohorts were taken at biopsies and from residual tumors, respectively. PIK3CA mutations were detected by sequencing DNA fragments obtained by PCR amplification of exons and their flanking introns. All of the detected PIK3CA mutations were confirmed in a second independent run of sample testing.Results PIK3CA mutations were present in 21/134 cases (15.7%). Mutations in exon 9 and 20 were present in 10/134 (7.5%) and 11/134 (8.2%), respectively. No cases had mutations in both exons. Mutations in exon 9 consisted of E545A (seven cases), E545K (two cases) and E545Q (one case); while in exon 20, mutations consisted of H1047R (10 cases) and H1047L (one case). Compared to TNBC patients, HER2-amplified patients were more likely to have PIK3CA mutated (23% vs 9.6%; P = 0.034). There were no associations between mutational status of PIK3CA with estrogen receptor status (P = 0.731), progesterone receptor status (P = 0.921), age (P = 0.646), nodal status (P = 0.240) or histological grade (P = 1.00). No significant associations were found between PIK3CA mutational status and clinicopathological features.Conclusions We found a similar frequency of PIK3CA mutations to that reported in other series. Although we did not include HR+/HER2 patients, those with HER2-amplified tumors were more likely to present PIK3CA mutations compared to patients with triple negative tumors.