Prospective cohort study of influenza vaccine effectiveness among healthcare personnel in Lima, Peru: Estudio Vacuna de Influenza Peru, 2016-2018

Meredith G. Wesley, Giselle Soto, Carmen Sofia Arriola, Miriam Gonzales, Gabriella Newes-Adeyi, Candice Romero, Vic Veguilla, Min Z. Levine, Maria Silva, Jill M. Ferdinands, Fatimah S. Dawood, Sue B. Reynolds, Avital Hirsch, Mark Katz, Eduardo Matos, Eduardo Ticona, Juan Castro, Maria Castillo, Eduar Bravo, Angela CheungRachel Phadnis, Emily Toth Martin, Yeny Tinoco, Joan Manuel Neyra Quijandria, Eduardo Azziz-Baumgartner, Mark G. Thompson, Suryaprakash Sambhara, Shivaprakash Gangappa, Ryan E. Malosh, Christopher Flygare, Weiping Cao, Margarita Mishina, Young Moo Yoo, Christopher N. Mores, Wesley R. Campbell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Background: The Estudio Vacuna de Influenza Peru (VIP) cohort aims to describe the frequency of influenza virus infection, identify predictors of vaccine acceptance, examine the effects of repeated influenza vaccination on immunogenicity, and evaluate influenza vaccine effectiveness among HCP. Methods: The VIP cohort prospectively followed HCP in Lima, Peru, during the 2016-2018 influenza seasons; a fourth year is ongoing. Participants contribute blood samples before and after the influenza season and after influenza vaccination (for vaccinees). Weekly surveillance is conducted to identify acute respiratory or febrile illnesses (ARFI). When an ARFI is identified, participants self-collect nasal swabs that are tested for influenza viruses by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Influenza vaccination status and 5-year vaccination history are ascertained. We analyzed recruitment and enrollment results for 2016-2018 and surveillance participation for 2016-2017. Results: In the first 3 years of the cohort, VIP successfully contacted 92% of potential participants, enrolled 76% of eligible HCP, and retained >90% of participants across years. About half of participants are medical assistants (54%), and most provide “hands-on” medical care (76%). Sixty-nine percent and 52% of participants completed surveillance for >70% of weeks in years 1 and 2, respectively. Fewer weeks of completed surveillance was associated with older age (≥50 years), being a medical assistant, self-rated health of fair or poor, and not receiving the influenza vaccine during the current season (P-values <.05). Conclusions: The VIP cohort provides an opportunity to address knowledge gaps about influenza virus infection, vaccination uptake, effectiveness and immunogenicity among HCP.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)391-402
Number of pages12
JournalInfluenza and other Respiratory Viruses
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1 Jul 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by two funding sources. CDC funded these efforts through contract HHSD2002013M53890B (Achieving Public Health Impact through Research; task 200-2014-F-60406: “The Epidemiology and Prevention of Influenza Virus Infections in Low- and Middle-Income Countries”) to Abt Associates. CDC funded the Inter-Agency Agreement (Number NMR-9619/CDC13FED1310208/NMR9864/CDC16FED1612328) to Naval Medical Research Unit 6 (NAMRU6). IRBs at both organizations reviewed and approved study protocol and procedures (Abt Associates Protocol: 0840; NAMRU6 Protocol: NAMRU6.2015.0001) in compliance with all applicable Federal regulations governing the protection of human subjects. The authors would like to thank all study staff at participating hospitals and express gratitude to all study participants.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


  • healthcare personnel
  • influenza
  • influenza vaccine


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