Radiations are an efficient treatment modality in cancer therapy. Besides the treatment effects of radiations, the ionizing radiations interact with biological systems and generate reactive oxygen species that interfere with the normal cellular process. Previous investigations have been conducted only on few synthetic radioprotectors, mainly owing to some limiting effects. The nutraceuticals act as efficient radioprotectors to protect the tissues from the deleterious effects of radiation. The main radioprotection mechanism of nutraceuticals is the scavenging of free radicals while other strategies involve modulation of signaling transduction pathways like MAPK (JNK, ERK1/2, ERK5, and P38), NF-kB, cytokines, and their protein regulatory gene expression. The current review is focused on the radioprotective effects of nutraceuticals including vitamin E,-C, organosulphur compounds, phenylpropanoids, and polysaccharides. These natural entities protect against radiation-induced DNA damage. The review mainly entails the antioxidant perspective and radioprotective molecular mechanism of nutraceuticals, DNA repair pathway, anti-inflammation, immunomodulatory effects and regeneration of hematopoietic cells.
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