A ternary nanocomposite made of nanomaghemite, nanoanatase, and graphene oxide has been successfully synthesized using an inorganic coprecipitation approach, and it has been systemati-cally investigated by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and different spectrocopic techniques (electron energy loss, µ-Raman, and57Fe Mössbauer) after interaction with an effluent containing Daphnia magna individuals. Specifically, the influence of the nanocomposite over the Daph-nia magna carapace, administered in two doses (0.5 mg mL−1 and 1 mg mL−1), has been characterized using µ-Raman spectroscopy before and after laser burning protocols, producing information about the physicochemical interaction with the biomarker. The thermal stability of the nanocomposite was found to be equal to 500◦C, where the nanoanatase and the nanomaghemite phases have respectively conserved their structural identities. The magnetic properties of the nanomaghemite have also been kept unchanged even after the high-temperature experiments and exposure to Daphnia magna. In particular, the size, texture, and structural and morphological properties of the ternary nanocomposite have not shown any significant physicochemical modifications after magnetic decantation recupera-tion. A significant result is that the graphene oxide reduction was kept even after the ecotoxicological assays. These sets of observations are based on the fact that while the UV-Vis spectrum has confirmed the graphene oxide reduction with a localized peak at 260 nm, the 300-K and 15-K57Fe Mössbauer spectra have only revealed the presence of stoichiometric maghemite, i.e., the two well-defined static magnetic sextets often found in the bulk ferrimagnetic counterpart phase. The Mössbauer results have also agreed with the trivalent-like valence state of Fe ions, as also suggested by electron energy loss spectroscopy data. Thus, the ternary nanocomposite does not substantially affect the Daphnia magna, and it can be easily recovered using an ordinary magnetic decantation protocol due to the ferrimagnetic-like character of the nanomaghemite phase. Consequently, it shows remarkable physicochemical properties for further reuse, such as cleaning by polluted effluents, at least where Daphnia magna species are present.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding: This research was funded by Vicerrectorado de Investigación y Posgrado (VRIP) de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos (UNMSM), project code B20131691, and the APC was funded by VRIP-UNMSM.
Acknowledgments: The authors thank the Vicerrectorado de Investigación y Posgrado (VRIP) de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos for supporting this work, project code B20131691. Edson C. Passamani would also like to thank FAPES and CNPq for their financial support.
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
- Daphnia magna biomarkers
- lethal dose
- nanohybrid recoverage
- post-exposure characterization