Remarkable sexual dimorphism, rarity and cryptic species: A revision of the 'aegrota species group' of the Neotropical butterfly genus Caeruleuptychia

Shinichi Nakahara, Thamara Zacca, Blanca Huertas, Andrew F.E. Neild, Jason P.W. Hall, Gerardo Lamas, Lauren A. Holian, Marianne Espeland, Keith R. Willmott

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations

Abstract

The 'aegrota species group' of the Neotropical nymphalid genus Caeruleuptychia Forster, 1964, in addition to three other superficially similar, enigmatic species in the genus, are revised. A lectotype is designated for Euptychia aegrota Butler, 1867, E. aetherialis Butler, 1877 stat. rev., E. helios Weymer, 1911 and E. pilata Butler, 1867, and C. aetherialis is resurrected from its synonymy with C. aegrota. Caeruleuptychia helios caelestissima Brévignon, 2010, syn. nov., and Magneuptychia keltoumae Brévignon & Benmesbah, 2012, syn. nov. are both regarded as junior subjective synonyms of C. helios (Weymer, 1911), as a result of the discovery and first illustration of the female of this taxon. The female of C. aegrota is also described and illustrated for the first time, and three new species, C. trembathi Willmott, Nakahara, Hall & Neild, sp. nov., C. scripta Nakahara, Zacca & Huertas, sp. nov., and C. maryzenderae Lamas & Nakahara, sp. nov. are described and named. We analyze morphological and molecular data separately, in addition to combining morphological data with molecular data, to provide the first phylogenetic hypothesis for the taxa treated in this revision.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)130-182
Number of pages53
JournalInsect Systematics and Evolution
Volume49
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - 2018
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors are extremely grateful to the following for their generous help and support in diverse phases during the course of preparing the manuscript: Mabel Alvarado; Mohamed Benmesbah; Christian Brévignon; Pierre Boyer; Juan Carlos Cusi; Mirna Casagrande; André Freitas; Jean-Yves Gallard; Geoffrey Gallice; Juan Grados; Alfredo Guzmán; Axel Hausmann; Bernard Hermier; Steven Heydon; Jean François LeCrom; Wolfram Mey; Olaf Mielke; Jean-Claude Petit; Jamie Radford; Ernesto Rázuri; Johana Reyes; Robert Robbins; Maryzender Rodríguez; Jere Schweikert; Diana Silva; Denise Tan; David Trembath; Haydon Warren-Gash; Julia and Jamie Robinson Willmott. SN and KRW thank Santiago Villamarín and the Ecuadorian Ministerio del Ambiente for supporting field research in Ecuador. GL acknowledges the Servicio Nacional Forestal y de Fauna Silvestre (SERFOR), Lima, Peru for field research and collecting permits in Peru. We acknowledge funding support from the National Science Foundation (DEB-1256742, DEB-0103746, DEB-0639861) and National Geographic Society (Research and Exploration Grant # 5751-96). Thanks to Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) for the fellowship granted to TZ (140225/2013-7). We extend our thanks to TaxonLine project based at Universidade Federal do Paraná for providing male genitalia photos of C. scripta used in the present study. We further thank Alexandra Pagac, Amanda Anderson and Evelyn Gamboa for help in databasing material, and Lei Xiao, Vanessa Navas, Gebreyes Kassu, Sarah Nguyentran, and Stephanie Tyler for assistance in obtaining DNA sequence data, and the Florida Museum of Natural History and FLMNH Museum Associates. Finally, we thank the staff of the Systematics of Euptychiina project at NHMUK, Sophie Ledger and Robyn Crowther.

Funding Information:
The authors are extremely grateful to the following for their generous help and support in diverse phases during the course of preparing the manuscript: Mabel Alvarado; Mohamed Benmesbah; Christian Brévignon; Pierre Boyer; Juan Carlos Cusi; Mirna Casagrande; André Freitas; Jean-Yves Gallard; Geoffrey Gallice; Juan Grados; Alfredo Guzmán; Axel Hausmann; Bernard Hermier; Steven Heydon; Jean François LeCrom; Wolfram Mey; Olaf Mielke; Jean-Claude Petit; Jamie Radford; Ernesto Rázuri; Johana Reyes; Robert Robbins; Maryzender Rodríguez; Jere Schweikert; Diana Silva; Denise Tan; David Trembath; Haydon Warren-Gash; Julia and Jamie Robinson Willmott. SN and KRW thank Santiago Villamarín and the Ecuadorian Ministerio del Ambi-ente for supporting field research in Ecuador. GL acknowledges the Servicio Nacional Forestal y de Fauna Silvestre (SERFOR), Lima, Peru for field research and collecting permits in Peru. We acknowledge funding support from the National Science Foundation (DEB-1256742, DEB-0103746, DEB-0639861) and National Geographic Society (Research and Exploration Grant # 5751–96). Thanks to Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) for the fellowship granted to TZ (140225/2013-7). We extend our thanks to TaxonLine project based at Universidade Federal do Paraná for providing male genitalia photos of C. scripta used in the present study. We further thank Alexandra Pagac, Amanda Anderson and Evelyn Gamboa for help in databasing material, and Lei Xiao, Vanessa Navas, Gebreyes Kassu, Sarah Nguyentran, and Stephanie Tyler for assistance in obtaining DNA sequence data, and the Florida Museum of Natural History and FLMNH Museum Associates. Finally, we thank the staff of the Systematics of Euptychiina project at NHMUK, Sophie Ledger and Robyn Crowther.

Keywords

  • Amazonian forest
  • DNA barcode
  • eastern Andes
  • Euptychiina
  • lectotype

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