We provide the first comprehensive taxonomic revision of the poorly known South American butterfly genus Zischkaia Forster, 1964, hitherto regarded as including three described species. A phylogenetic analysis based on DNA sequence data shows that Zischkaia is monophyletic and consists of two morphologically diagnosable clades. Morphological characters and DNA ‘barcodes’ support the recognition of twelve species in the genus, a significant increase even for the relatively poorly studied subtribe Euptychiina. Consequently, nine new species are described and named herein, including Z. arctoa Nakahara, sp. nov., Z. chullachaki Nakahara & Zacca, sp. nov., Z. baku Zacca, Dolibaina & Dias, sp. nov., Z. arenisca Nakahara, Willmott & Hall, sp. nov., Z. argyrosflecha Nakahara, L. Miller & Huertas, sp. nov., Z. abanico Nakahara & Petit, sp. nov., Z. josti Nakahara & Kleckner, sp. nov., Z. mielkeorum Dolibaina, Dias & Zacca, sp. nov. and Z. warreni Dias, Zacca & Dolibaina, sp. nov. In addition, a neotype is designated for Satyrus pacarus Godart, , and lectotypes are designated for Euptychia amalda Weymer, 1911, Euptychia fumata Butler, 1867 and Euptychia saundersii Butler, 1867.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We are grateful to Jean-Claude Petit, Andr? V.L. Freitas, Axel Hausmann, Bernhard Jost, Andrew Warren, Renato de Oliveira Silva, Marcelo Duarte, Ruedi Bryner, Brian Harris, Robert Robbins, Donald Harvey, David Grimaldi, Christine Lebeau and the Romero family for allowing access to the specimens of Zischkaia under their care. We extend our thanks to Andrew Neild for sharing information regarding Venezuelan Zischkaia, providing a photo of R?o Abanico used in this article and translating Latin text; James Hayden for translating German text; Ulf Buchsbaum for kindly loaning material to SN for study; Sebasti?n Padr?n and Erick Rodr?guez for help with the Spanish translation. Thanks are also due to Eduardo Barbosa for providing us with information on the provenance of the name ?baku?. We thank Brooke Patrusky, Karunakar Kallam, Lindsay Richards, Stephanie Tyler and Sarah Nguyentran for their work in the McGuire Center molecular lab. We thank Chris Jiggins, Julia Robinson Willmott and Jamie Robinson Willmott for collecting important specimens of Zischkaia in Ecuador. Field work by KRW and SN in Ecuador was done under the permit ?Genetic Diversity of Ecuador? (MAE-DNB-CM-2016-0045), granted by the Ministerio del Ambiente of Ecuador to the National Institute of Biodiversity (INABIO), which supports the project ?Diversity and Biology of the Lepidoptera of Ecuador?. We acknowledge the National Science Foundation (Grant No. DEB-1256742) for support. SN acknowledges the University of Florida?s Department of Entomology and Nematology for support; TZ thanks FAPESP for a Post-Doc fellowship (2017/02264-6). FMSD, DRD and OHHM would like to thank members of the Laborat?rio de Estudos em Lepidoptera Neotropical (LELN-UFPR) for additional help; and the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cient?fico e Tecnol?gico (CNPq) for the research fellowship granted to the authors (FMSD: 150670/2018-4; DRD: 171177/2017-7; OHHM: 304639/2014-2). Brazilian specimens used in this study are registered at the Sistema Nacional de Gest?o do Patrim?nio Gen?tico e do Conhecimento Tradicional Associado (SisGen) (#A35372).
- DNA “barcodes”
- Neotropical region