Cystic hydatid disease (CHD) is a worldwide zoonosis caused by the larval stage of the dog tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. Diagnosis is based on imagenological tools (abdominal ultrasound, chest X-rays, or computed tomography [CT] scan). Serological antibody-detecting assays, using diverse native antigens, have been used as a supportive diagnostic tool, but their sensitivities and specificities differ greatly. The use of synthetic peptides as antigens should provide more reliability and allow better assessment and comparison of test formats and case series. The synthetic peptide p176, corresponding to the N-terminal extreme of the subunit of antigen B (AgB8/1), has shown promising performances for diagnosis of CHD. We evaluated the performance of the synthetic peptide p176 for the diagnosis of pulmonary hydatid disease in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) format. Sixty-one serum samples from patients with a diagnosis of pulmonary hydatidosis confirmed by surgery and 128 from healthy volunteers were tested. The overall sensitivity and specificity of the p176 ELISA for lung CHD were 78.69% and 96.88%, respectively. On bivariate analysis, positive serum antibody reactions were associated with the presence of complications and with the number of cysts (single/multiple). Only the presence of persistent complications significantly associated with seropositivity on multivariate logistic regression analysis (odds ratio [OR], 9.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.15 to 42.6; P = 0.003). The p176 ELISA performs well for the diagnosis of lung CHD and adds an easily reproducible diagnostic assay to the existing diagnostic tools. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.