The Peruvian Andes presents a climate suitable for many species of sandfly that are known vectors of leishmaniasis or bartonellosis, including Lutzomyia peruensis (Diptera: Psychodidae), among others. In the present study, occurrences data for Lu. peruensis were compiled from several items in the scientific literature from Peru published between 1927 and 2015. Based on these data, ecological niche models were constructed to predict spatial distributions using three algorithms [Support vector machine (SVM), the Genetic Algorithm for Rule-set Prediction (GARP) and Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt)]. In addition, the environmental requirements of Lu. peruensis and three niche characteristics were modelled in the context of future climate change scenarios: (a) potential changes in niche breadth; (b) shifts in the direction and magnitude of niche centroids, and (c) shifts in elevation range. The model identified areas that included environments suitable for Lu. peruensis in most regions of Peru (45.77%) and an average altitude of 3289 m a.s.l. Under climate change scenarios, a decrease in the distribution areas of Lu. peruensis was observed for all representative concentration pathways. However, the centroid of the species' ecological niche showed a northwest direction in all climate change scenarios. The information generated in this study may help health authorities responsible for the supervision of strategies to control leishmaniasis to coordinate, plan and implement appropriate strategies for each area of risk, taking into account the geographic distribution and potential dispersal of Lu. peruensis.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors thank all the reviewers of this manuscript. The first author (DAM-L) is a doctoral student from Programa de Doctorado en Ciencias Biom?dicas, Universidad Nacional Aut?noma de M?xico (UNAM) and received fellowship 231741 from CONACYT. The authors also thank Dr Vilma Ruth Castillo Bejar, director of the Daniel A. Carri?n Institute of Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, San Marcos University, Lima, Peru, for administrative support that allowed the development of the present investigation.
- climate change
- ecological niche
- Lutzomyia peruensis