Background: Dermatologic diseases vary widely as a result of geographic location and may be influenced by environmental factors. Aim: To determine the epidemiology of dermatological diseases in the Peruvian Amazonia. Methods: Transversal and multicentric study, which were carried out during February of 2006, 2007, and 2008 in three regional hospitals in the Peruvian Amazonia. All new patients who were looking for dermatological consultation were included. Univariate/bivariate analysis, chi square, and multinomial logistic regression were used with a confidence level of 95%. Results: A total of 1602 patients were included. The infectious and parasitic dermatoses were the most prevalent (31.5%). There was a statiscally significant association between infections of the skin and subcutaneous tissue in children (P < 0.001). The parasitic dermatoses such as scabiosis, pediculosis, and myiasis were associated with an altitude less than 700 meters above sea level (m.a.s.l.) (P = 0.003, OR = 3.1, CI: 1.5-6.7). On the other hand, radiation-related disorders of the skin and subcutaneous tissue were associated with more than 700 m.a.s.l. (P < 0.01, OR = 2.9, CI: 1.7-4.9). Conclusions: Infectious dermatological diseases were the most common diagnoses in the Peruvian Amazonia. In addition, radiation-related disorders of the skin should be addressed for people living/traveling in the rainforest area. These findings may assist in the training of general doctors in diagnosis and treatment of the most common dermatoses in tropical areas. Moreover, this study would be helpful for physicians from developed countries when giving medical advice/attention to travelers or immigrants of tropical areas. © 2010 The International Society of Dermatology.