Socioeconomic Aspects of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Luis A. González-Naranjo, Manuel F. Ugarte-Gil, Graciela S. Alarcón

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Lower socioeconomic status (SES) can affect systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) outcomes by several possible mechanisms, such as inadequate access to quality care services, communication barriers, and malnutrition. SES should be systematically measured at the individual level (education, income, and occupation), as well as at the household and neighborhood levels. Lower SES has been associated with higher disease activity, mainly over the disease course, higher damage accrual, mortality, and disability. Furthermore, outcome differences between Caucasians and non-Caucasians are partially explained by socioeconomic factors. The association between non-Caucasian ethnicities and lower SES makes genetic and environmental risks difficult to disentangle.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSystemic Lupus Erythematosus
Subtitle of host publicationBasic, Applied and Clinical Aspects
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Number of pages4
ISBN (Electronic)9780128020098
ISBN (Print)9780128019177
StatePublished - 2016

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


  • Disability
  • Disease activity
  • Disease damage
  • Mortality
  • Socioeconomic factors


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