Five tamarins (four Saguinus mystax and one S. labiatus) died with wasting syndrome characterized by chronic diarrhea at the Center for Reproduction and Conservation of Non-Human Primates in Iquitos, Peru. At necropsy, the terminal ileum of all affected tamarins was found to be markedly thickened. Histologically, the terminal ileal mucosa was completely ulcerated, and effaced by debris and mononuclear inflammatory cells. The submucosa and serosa were thickened by fibroplasia, mononuclear cell infiltrates and variable edema. No infectious agent was observed. The lesions were similar to those described previously for Crohn disease. This is to our knowledge the first report of terminal ileitis resembling Crohn disease in non-human primates.