We here establish a new genus in the nymphalid butterfly subtribe Euptychiina, Cisandina Nakahara & Espeland, n. gen. to harbor five species hitherto placed within two polyphyletic genera, namely Magneuptychia Forster, 1964 and Euptychoides Forster, 1964. We compiled data from over 350 specimens in 17 public and private collections, as well as DNA sequence data for all relevant species, to revise the species-level classification of this new genus. According to our multi-locus molecular phylogeny estimated with the maximum likelihood approach, Cisandina lea n. comb., Cisandina philippa n. comb. & reinst. stat., Cisandina fida n. comb., Cisandina sanmarcos n. comb., and Cisandina trinitensis n. comb. are proposed as new taxonomic combinations, since these species are distantly related to the type species of Magneuptychia and Euptychoides and cannot reasonably be accommodated in any other genus. Lectotypes are designated for Papilio lea Cramer, 1777, Papilio junia Cramer, 1780, Euptychia philippa Butler, 1867, and Eupytchia fida Weymer, 1911. Two new species of Cisandina n. gen. are named and described herein, C. esmeralda Nakahara & Barbosa, n. sp. and C. castanya Lamas & Nakahara, n. sp., increasing the described species diversity of the genus to seven. The immature stages of C. castanya n. sp. and C. philippa n. comb. & reinst. stat. are documented along with their natural hostplants, representing the first two species of the genus with known life history information. We describe a new subspecies, Cisandina fida directa Nakahara & Willmott, n. ssp., based on a limited number of specimens from southern Ecuador and central Peru. We were unable to obtain genetic data for the nominate race of C. fida n. comb., and thus, this taxonomic hypothesis is currently based solely on phenotypic characters.
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We would like to express our gratitude to all curators and collectors who allowed access to or provided information about specimens under their care, including Gerald Legg (BMB), Wolfram Mey (MNHU), Mike J. Perce-val (MIPE), Mohamed Benmesbah (MOBE), Tomasz Pyrcz (MZUJ), Blanca Huertas (NHMUK), Robert Robbins and Brian Harris (USNM), Axel Hausmann (ZSM), and André V. L. Freitas (ZUEC); Hajo Gernaat for translating relevant parts of the original description; Ulf Drechsel for allowing us to use his photograph of C. esmeralda n. sp.; Ezequiel Núñez for photographing relevant specimens; Lynn Clark and Fabrício Ferreira for generously identifying the host plants; all those who contributed to digitizing specimen data, especially Robyn Crowther and Evelyn Gamboa; three anonymous reviewers for conducting post-submission reviews and providing numerous helpful comments and suggestions. SN acknowledges University of Florida’s Entomology Department and Alliance for Sustainable Amazon for support. MRM thanks Diana Silva for their continuous support, and Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas – CONICET for doctoral fellowship. EPB (2016/15873-8, 2018/21432-0) thanks Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP) and Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) (162673/2020-5). MMC (CNPq302084/2017-7) thanks Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico. KRW acknowledges the US National Science Foundation (DEB-1256742) for support. Rearing relevant to the present study at Finca Las Piedras was conducted under permit no. 187-2017-SERFOR/ DGGSPFFS; Brazilian butterfly species are registered in the Brazilian Sistema Nacional de Gestão do Patrimônio Genético e do Conhecimento Tradicional Associado (National System for the Management of Genetic Heritage and Associated Traditional Knowledge) SISGEN (A37D0EF).
© The Author(s) 2022.